References MR-proADM


 

Overview

1.    Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, et al. Adrenomedullin: a novel hypotensive peptide isolated from human pheochromocytoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Apr 30 1993;192(2):553-560.
2.    Hinson JP, Kapas S, Smith DM. Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional regulatory peptide. Endocr Rev. Apr 2000;21(2):138-167.
3.    Linscheid P, Seboek D, Zulewski H, Keller U, Muller B. Autocrine/paracrine role of inflammation-mediated calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin expression in human adipose tissue. Endocrinology. Jun 2005;146(6):2699-2708.
4.    Nishikimi T. Adrenomedullin in the kidney-renal physiological and pathophysiological roles. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(15):1689-1699.
5.    Pio R, Martinez A, Unsworth EJ, et al. Complement factor H is a serum-binding protein for adrenomedullin, and the resulting complex modulates the bioactivities of both partners. J Biol Chem. Apr 13 2001;276(15):12292-12300.
6.    Lim SC, Morgenthaler NG, Subramaniam T, Wu YS, Goh SK, Sum CF. The relationship between adrenomedullin, metabolic factors, and vascular function in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. Jun 2007;30(6):1513-1519.
7.    Ishimitsu T, Nishikimi T, Saito Y, et al. Plasma levels of adrenomedullin, a newly identified hypotensive peptide, in patients with hypertension and renal failure. J Clin Invest. Nov 1994;94(5):2158-2161.
8.    Schuetz P, Wolbers M, Christ-Crain M, et al. Prohormones for prediction of adverse medical outcome in community-acquired pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections. Crit Care. 2010;14(3):R106.
9.    Nishio K, Akai Y, Murao Y, et al. Increased plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin correlate with relaxation of vascular tone in patients with septic shock. Crit Care Med. Jun 1997;25(6):953-957.
10.    Nishikimi T, Saito Y, Kitamura K, et al. Increased plasma levels of adrenomedullin in patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. Nov 15 1995;26(6):1424-1431.
11.    Washimine H, Yamamoto Y, Kitamura K, et al. Plasma concentration of human adrenomedullin in patients on hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol. Dec 1995;44(6):389-393.
12.    Kobayashi K, Kitamura K, Hirayama N, et al. Increased plasma adrenomedullin in acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. Apr 1996;131(4):676-680.
13.    Kakishita M, Nishikimi T, Okano Y, et al. Increased plasma levels of adrenomedullin in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Clin Sci (Lond). Jan 1999;96(1):33-39.
14.    Meeran K, O'Shea D, Upton PD, et al. Circulating adrenomedullin does not regulate systemic blood pressure but increases plasma prolactin after intravenous infusion in humans: a pharmacokinetic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jan 1997;82(1):95-100.
15.    Lewis LK, Smith MW, Brennan SO, Yandle TG, Richards AM, Nicholls MG. Degradation of human adrenomedullin(1-52) by plasma membrane enzymes and identification of metabolites. Peptides. 1997;18(5):733-739.
16.    Struck J, Tao C, Morgenthaler NG, Bergmann A. Identification of an Adrenomedullin precursor fragment in plasma of sepsis patients. Peptides. Aug 2004;25(8):1369-1372.
17.    Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Harbarth S, Bergmann A, Muller B. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin as a prognostic marker in sepsis: an observational study. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):R816-824.
18.    Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Alonso C, Bergmann A. Measurement of midregional proadrenomedullin in plasma with an immunoluminometric assay. Clin Chem. Oct 2005;51(10):1823-1829.
19.    Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Eto T. Adrenomedullin and PAMP: discovery, structures, and cardiovascular functions. Microsc Res Tech. Apr 1 2002;57(1):3-13.
20.    Schuetz P, Marlowe RJ, Mueller B. The prognostic blood biomarker proadrenomedullin for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a qualitative clinical review. Clin Chem Lab Med. Sep 25 2014.
21.    Elsasser TH, Kahl S. Adrenomedullin has multiple roles in disease stress: development and remission of the inflammatory response. Microsc Res Tech. Apr 15 2002;57(2):120-129.
22.    Shimekake Y, Nagata K, Ohta S, et al. Adrenomedullin stimulates two signal transduction pathways, cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ mobilization, in bovine aortic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. Mar 3 1995;270(9):4412-4417.
23.    Eto T. A review of the biological properties and clinical implications of adrenomedullin and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), hypotensive and vasodilating peptides. Peptides. Nov 2001;22(11):1693-1711.
24.    Kubo A, Minamino N, Isumi Y, et al. Production of adrenomedullin in macrophage cell line and peritoneal macrophage. J Biol Chem. Jul 3 1998;273(27):16730-16738.
25.    Wong LY, Cheung BM, Li YY, Tang F. Adrenomedullin is both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory: its effects on gene expression and secretion of cytokines and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in NR8383 macrophage cell line. Endocrinology. Mar 2005;146(3):1321-1327.
26.    Sugo S, Minamino N, Shoji H, et al. Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and lipopolysaccharide additively stimulate production of adrenomedullin in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Feb 6 1995;207(1):25-32.
27.    Abraham E, Laterre PF, Garg R, et al. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for adults with severe sepsis and a low risk of death. N Engl J Med. Sep 29 2005;353(13):1332-1341.
28.    Huang DT, Angus DC, Kellum JA, et al. Midregional proadrenomedullin as a prognostic tool in community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. Sep 2009;136(3):823-831.
29.    Potocki M, Breidthardt T, Reichlin T, et al. Midregional pro-adrenomedullin in addition to b-type natriuretic peptides in the risk stratification of patients with acute dyspnea: an observational study. Crit Care. 2009;13(4):R122.
30.    Nickel CH, Messmer AS, Geigy N, et al. Stress markers predict mortality in patients with nonspecific complaints presenting to the emergency department and may be a useful risk stratification tool to support disposition planning. Acad Emerg Med. Jul 2013;20(7):670-679.
31.    Klip IT, Voors AA, Anker SD, et al. Prognostic value of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in patients with heart failure after an acute myocardial infarction. Heart. Jun 2011;97(11):892-898.
32.    Travaglino F, Russo V, De Berardinis B, et al. Thirty and ninety days mortality predictive value of admission and in-hospital procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin testing in patients with dyspnea. Results from the VERyfing DYspnea trial. Am J Emerg Med. Apr 2014;32(4):334-341.
33.    von Haehling S, Filippatos GS, Papassotiriou J, et al. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin as a novel predictor of mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. May 2010;12(5):484-491.
34.    Haaf P, Twerenbold R, Reichlin T, et al. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in the early evaluation of acute chest pain patients. Int J Cardiol. Sep 30 2013;168(2):1048-1055.
35.    Ishihara T, Yokota N, Hisanaga S, et al. Increased plasma levels of mature form of adrenomedullin in patients with chronic renal failure. Clin Nephrol. Aug 1999;52(2):119-123.
36.    Kinoshita H, Fujimoto S, Kitamura K, et al. Increased plasma levels of mature adrenomedullin in chronic glomerulonephritis. Nephron. Nov 2000;86(3):333-338.
37.    Hirata Y, Mitaka C, Sato K, et al. Increased circulating adrenomedullin, a novel vasodilatory peptide, in sepsis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Apr 1996;81(4):1449-1453.
38.    Shoji H, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H. Endotoxin markedly elevates plasma concentration and gene transcription of adrenomedullin in rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Oct 13 1995;215(2):531-537.
39.    Wang P, Ba ZF, Cioffi WG, Bland KI, Chaudry IH. The pivotal role of adrenomedullin in producing hyperdynamic circulation during the early stage of sepsis. Arch Surg. Dec 1998;133(12):1298-1304.
40.    Allaker RP, Zihni C, Kapas S. An investigation into the antimicrobial effects of adrenomedullin on members of the skin, oral, respiratory tract and gut microflora. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. Apr 1999;23(4):289-293.
41.    Yin H, Chao L, Chao J. Adrenomedullin protects against myocardial apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion through activation of Akt-GSK signaling. Hypertension. Jan 2004;43(1):109-116.
42.    Allaker RP, Grosvenor PW, McAnerney DC, et al. Mechanisms of adrenomedullin antimicrobial action. Peptides. Apr 2006;27(4):661-666.
43.    Marutsuka K, Nawa Y, Asada Y, et al. Adrenomedullin and proadrenomudullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are present in human colonic epithelia and exert an antimicrobial effect. Exp Physiol. Sep 2001;86(5):543-545.
44.    Martinez A, Pio R, Zipfel PF, Cuttitta F. Mapping of the adrenomedullin-binding domains in human complement factor H. Hypertens Res. Feb 2003;26 Suppl:S55-59.
45.    Scott MG, Hancock RE. Cationic antimicrobial peptides and their multifunctional role in the immune system. Crit Rev Immunol. 2000;20(5):407-431.
46.    Kohno M, Yokokawa K, Kano H, et al. Adrenomedullin is a potent inhibitor of angiotensin II-induced migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Hypertension. Jun 1997;29(6):1309-1313.
47.    Fernandez S, Knopf MA, McGillis JP. Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) inhibits interleukin-7-induced pre-B cell colony formation. J Leukoc Biol. May 2000;67(5):669-676.
48.    Kamoi H, Kanazawa H, Hirata K, Kurihara N, Yano Y, Otani S. Adrenomedullin inhibits the secretion of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, a member of the interleukin-8 family, from rat alveolar macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Jun 26 1995;211(3):1031-1035.
49.    Kohno M, Yokokawa K, Yasunari K, et al. Induction by lysophosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid component of atherogenic lipoproteins, of human coronary artery smooth muscle cell migration. Circulation. Jul 28 1998;98(4):353-359.
50.    Iwasaki H, Eguchi S, Shichiri M, Marumo F, Hirata Y. Adrenomedullin as a novel growth-promoting factor for cultured vascular smooth muscle cells: role of tyrosine kinase-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Endocrinology. Aug 1998;139(8):3432-3441.
51.    Withers DJ, Coppock HA, Seufferlein T, Smith DM, Bloom SR, Rozengurt E. Adrenomedullin stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation via elevation of cAMP in Swiss 3T3 cells. FEBS Lett. Jan 2 1996;378(1):83-87.
52.    Landry DW, Oliver JA. Insights into shock. Sci Am. Feb 2004;290(2):36-41.
53.    Ishiyama Y, Kitamura K, Ichiki Y, et al. Hemodynamic effects of a novel hypotensive peptide, human adrenomedullin, in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. Sep 14 1993;241(2-3):271-273.
54.    Ishiyama Y, Kitamura K, Ichiki Y, et al. Haemodynamic responses to rat adrenomedullin in anaesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. Sep 1995;22(9):614-618.
55.    Takahashi K, Nakayama M, Totsune K, et al. Increased secretion of adrenomedullin from cultured human astrocytes by cytokines. J Neurochem. Jan 2000;74(1):99-103.
56.    Fujioka S, Ono Y, Kangawa K, Okada K. Plasma concentration of adrenomedullin is increased in hemorrhagic shock in dogs. Anesth Analg. Feb 1999;88(2):326-328.
57.    Kikumoto K, Kubo A, Hayashi Y, et al. Increased plasma concentration of adrenomedullin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Anesth Analg. Oct 1998;87(4):859-863.
58.    Ono Y, Kojima M, Okada K, Kangawa K. cDNA cloning of canine adrenomedullin and its gene expression in the heart and blood vessels in endotoxin shock. Shock. Oct 1998;10(4):243-247.
59.    Tsuruda T, Kato J, Kitamura K, et al. Adrenomedullin: a possible autocrine or paracrine inhibitor of hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Hypertension. Jan 1998;31(1 Pt 2):505-510.
60.    Yoshihara F, Nishikimi T, Horio T, et al. Chronic infusion of adrenomedullin reduces pulmonary hypertension and lessens right ventricular hypertrophy in rats administered monocrotaline. Eur J Pharmacol. Aug 14 1998;355(1):33-39.
61.    Cormier-Regard S, Nguyen SV, Claycomb WC. Adrenomedullin gene expression is developmentally regulated and induced by hypoxia in rat ventricular cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. Jul 10 1998;273(28):17787-17792.
62.    Cejudo-Martin P, Morales-Ruiz M, Ros J, et al. Hypoxia is an inducer of vasodilator agents in peritoneal macrophages of cirrhotic patients. Hepatology. Nov 2002;36(5):1172-1179.
63.    Nagata D, Hirata Y, Suzuki E, et al. Hypoxia-induced adrenomedullin production in the kidney. Kidney Int. Apr 1999;55(4):1259-1267.
64.    Trollmann R, Schoof E, Beinder E, Wenzel D, Rascher W, Dotsch J. Adrenomedullin gene expression in human placental tIssue and leukocytes: a potential marker of severe tIssue hypoxia in neonates with birth asphyxia. Eur J Endocrinol. Nov 2002;147(5):711-716.
65.    Hofbauer KH, Jensen BL, Kurtz A, Sandner P. Tissue hypoxygenation activates the adrenomedullin system in vivo. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Feb 2000;278(2):R513-519.
66.    Nakayama M, Takahashi K, Murakami O, Shirato K, Shibahara S. Induction of adrenomedullin by hypoxia in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells. Peptides. 1999;20(6):769-772.
67.    Ando K, Ito Y, Kumada M, Fujita T. Oxidative stress increases adrenomedullin mRNA levels in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertens Res. Sep 1998;21(3):187-191.
68.    Nagaya N, Nishikimi T, Uematsu M, et al. Plasma adrenomedullin as an indicator of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Heart. May 1999;81(5):483-487.
69.    Oie E, Vinge LE, Yndestad A, Sandberg C, Grogaard HK, Attramadal H. Induction of a myocardial adrenomedullin signaling system during ischemic heart failure in rats. Circulation. Feb 1 2000;101(4):415-422.
70.    Vijay P, Szekely L, Aufiero TX, Sharp TG. Coronary sinus adrenomedullin rises in response to myocardial injury. Clin Sci (Lond). Apr 1999;96(4):415-420.
71.    Wang X, Yue TL, Barone FC, et al. Discovery of adrenomedullin in rat ischemic cortex and evidence for its role in exacerbating focal brain ischemic damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 5 1995;92(25):11480-11484.
72.    Ueda S, Nishio K, Minamino N, et al. Increased plasma levels of adrenomedullin in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Jul 1999;160(1):132-136.
73.    Temmesfeld-Wollbruck B, Brell B, David I, et al. Adrenomedullin reduces vascular hyperpermeability and improves survival in rat septic shock. Intensive Care Med. Apr 2007;33(4):703-710.
74.    Muller-Redetzky HC, Will D, Hellwig K, et al. Mechanical ventilation drives pneumococcal pneumonia into lung injury and sepsis in mice: protection by adrenomedullin. Crit Care. 2014;18(2):R73.
75.    Vallet B. Endothelial cell dysfunction and abnormal tissue perfusion. Crit Care Med. May 2002;30(5 Suppl):S229-234.
76.    Gonzalez-Rey E, Chorny A, Varela N, Robledo G, Delgado M. Urocortin and adrenomedullin prevent lethal endotoxemia by down-regulating the inflammatory response. Am J Pathol. Jun 2006;168(6):1921-1930.
77.    Carrizo GJ, Wu R, Cui X, Dwivedi AJ, Simms HH, Wang P. Adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin-binding protein-1 downregulate inflammatory cytokines and attenuate tissue injury after gut ischemia-reperfusion. Surgery. Feb 2007;141(2):245-253.
78.    Brell B, Hippenstiel S, David I, et al. Adrenomedullin treatment abolishes ileal mucosal hypoperfusion induced by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin--an intravital microscopic study on an isolated rat ileum. Crit Care Med. Dec 2005;33(12):2810-2016.
79.    Pugin J. Adrenomedullin: a vasodilator to treat sepsis? Crit Care. 2014;18(3):152.
80.    Albrich WC, Dusemund F, Ruegger K, et al. Enhancement of CURB65 score with proadrenomedullin (CURB65-A) for outcome prediction in lower respiratory tract infections: derivation of a clinical algorithm. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:112.
81.    Albrich WC, Ruegger K, Dusemund F, et al. Optimised patient transfer using an innovative multidisciplinary assessment in Kanton Aargau (OPTIMA I): an observational survey in lower respiratory tract infections. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011;141:w13237.

 

Sepsis

 1.    Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. Jun 1992;101(6):1644-1655.
2.    Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med. Apr 2003;31(4):1250-1256.
3.    Suberviola B, Castellanos-Ortega A, Ruiz Ruiz A, Lopez-Hoyos M, Santibanez M. Hospital mortality prognostication in sepsis using the new biomarkers suPAR and proADM in a single determination on ICU admission. Intensive Care Med. Nov 2013;39(11):1945-1952.
4.    Rangel-Frausto MS, Pittet D, Hwang T, Woolson RF, Wenzel RP. The dynamics of disease progression in sepsis: Markov modeling describing the natural history and the likely impact of effective antisepsis agents. Clin Infect Dis. Jul 1998;27(1):185-190.
5.    Vincent JL, Sakr Y, Sprung CL, et al. Sepsis in European intensive care units: results of the SOAP study. Crit Care Med. Feb 2006;34(2):344-353.
6.    Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. Apr 17 2003;348(16):1546-1554.
7.    Howell MD, Donnino MW, Talmor D, Clardy P, Ngo L, Shapiro NI. Performance of severity of illness scoring systems in emergency department patients with infection. Acad Emerg Med. Aug 2007;14(8):709-714.
8.    Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. Nov 8 2001;345(19):1368-1377.
9.    Koo DJ, Zhou M, Chaudry IH, Wang P. The role of adrenomedullin in producing differential hemodynamic responses during sepsis. J Surg Res. Feb 2001;95(2):207-218.
10.    Wang P, Ba ZF, Cioffi WG, Bland KI, Chaudry IH. The pivotal role of adrenomedullin in producing hyperdynamic circulation during the early stage of sepsis. Arch Surg. Dec 1998;133(12):1298-1304.
11.    Zhou M, Ba ZF, Chaudry IH, Wang P. Adrenomedullin binding protein-1 modulates vascular responsiveness to adrenomedullin in late sepsis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Sep 2002;283(3):R553-560.
12.    Isumi Y, Shoji H, Sugo S, et al. Regulation of adrenomedullin production in rat endothelial cells. Endocrinology. Mar 1998;139(3):838-846.
13.    Sugo S, Minamino N, Shoji H, et al. Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and lipopolysaccharide additively stimulate production of adrenomedullin in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Feb 6 1995;207(1):25-32.
14.    Vila G, Resl M, Stelzeneder D, et al. Plasma NT-proBNP increases in response to LPS administration in healthy men. J Appl Physiol (1985). Dec 2008;105(6):1741-1745.
15.    Hinson JP, Kapas S, Smith DM. Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional regulatory peptide. Endocr Rev. Apr 2000;21(2):138-167.
16.    Zhou M, Chaudry IH, Wang P. The small intestine is an important source of adrenomedullin release during polymicrobial sepsis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Aug 2001;281(2):R654-660.
17.    Eguchi S, Hirata Y, Iwasaki H, et al. Structure-activity relationship of adrenomedullin, a novel vasodilatory peptide, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Endocrinology. Dec 1994;135(6):2454-2458.
18.    Shimekake Y, Nagata K, Ohta S, et al. Adrenomedullin stimulates two signal transduction pathways, cAMP accumulation and Ca2+ mobilization, in bovine aortic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. Mar 3 1995;270(9):4412-4417.
19.    Owji AA, Smith DM, Coppock HA, et al. An abundant and specific binding site for the novel vasodilator adrenomedullin in the rat. Endocrinology. May 1995;136(5):2127-2134.
20.    Wang P, Zhou M, Ba ZF, Cioffi WG, Chaudry IH. Up-regulation of a novel potent vasodilatory peptide adrenomedullin during polymicrobial sepsis. Shock. Aug 1998;10(2):118-122.
21.    Ornan DA, Chaudry IH, Wang P. Pulmonary clearance of adrenomedullin is reduced during the late stage of sepsis. Biochim Biophys Acta. Apr 19 1999;1427(2):315-321.
22.    Wang P, Ba ZF, Chaudry IH. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is depressed at the macro- and microcirculatory levels during sepsis. Am J Physiol. Nov 1995;269(5 Pt 2):R988-994.
23.    Zhou M, Simms HH, Wang P. Adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin binding protein-1 attenuate vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in sepsis. Ann Surg. Aug 2004;240(2):321-330.
24.    Hotchkiss RS, Tinsley KW, Swanson PE, Karl IE. Endothelial cell apoptosis in sepsis. Crit Care Med. May 2002;30(5 Suppl):S225-228.
25.    Fowler DE, Wang P. The cardiovascular response in sepsis: proposed mechanisms of the beneficial effect of adrenomedullin and its binding protein (review). Int J Mol Med. May 2002;9(5):443-449.
26.    Wang P, Yoo P, Zhou M, Cioffi WG, Ba ZF, Chaudry IH. Reduction in vascular responsiveness to adrenomedullin during sepsis. J Surg Res. Jul 1999;85(1):59-65.
27.    Iwasaki H, Eguchi S, Shichiri M, Marumo F, Hirata Y. Down-regulation of adenylate cyclase coupled to adrenomedullin receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol. Jul 3 1998;352(1):131-134.
28.    Elsasser TH, Kahl S, Martinez A, Montuenga LM, Pio R, Cuttitta F. Adrenomedullin binding protein in the plasma of multiple species: characterization by radioligand blotting. Endocrinology. Oct 1999;140(10):4908-4911.
29.    Travaglino F, De Berardinis B, Magrini L, et al. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED). A comparison with APACHE II score. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:184.
30.    de Kruif MD, Lemaire LC, Giebelen IA, et al. The influence of corticosteroids on the release of novel biomarkers in human endotoxemia. Intensive Care Med. Mar 2008;34(3):518-522.
31.    Dandona P, Nix D, Wilson MF, et al. Procalcitonin increase after endotoxin injection in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dec 1994;79(6):1605-1608.
32.    Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Harbarth S, Bergmann A, Muller B. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin as a prognostic marker in sepsis: an observational study. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):R816-824.
33.    Schuetz P, Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Bergmann A, Muller B. Circulating precursor levels of endothelin-1 and adrenomedullin, two endothelium-derived, counteracting substances, in sepsis. Endothelium. Nov-Dec 2007;14(6):345-351.
34.    Rey C, Garcia-Hernandez I, Concha A, et al. Pro-adrenomedullin, pro-endothelin-1, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and mortality risk in critically ill children: a prospective study. Crit Care. 2013;17(5):R240.
35.    Marcin JP, Pollack MM. Review of the methodologies and applications of scoring systems in neonatal and pediatric intensive care. Pediatr Crit Care Med. Jul 2000;1(1):20-27.
36.    Pollack MM, Patel KM, Ruttimann UE. PRISM III: an updated Pediatric Risk of Mortality score. Crit Care Med. May 1996;24(5):743-752.
37.    Prieto Espunes S, Lopez-Herce Cid J, Rey Galan C, Medina Villanueva A, Concha Torre A, Martinez Camblor P. [Prognostic indexes of mortality in pediatric intensive care units]. An Pediatr (Barc). Apr 2007;66(4):345-350.
38.    Shann F, Pearson G, Slater A, Wilkinson K. Paediatric index of mortality (PIM): a mortality prediction model for children in intensive care. Intensive Care Med. Feb 1997;23(2):201-207.
39.    Slater A, Shann F, Pearson G. PIM2: a revised version of the Paediatric Index of Mortality. Intensive Care Med. Feb 2003;29(2):278-285.
40.    Lacroix J, Cotting J. Severity of illness and organ dysfunction scoring in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. May 2005;6(3 Suppl):S126-134.
41.    Jordan I, Corniero P, Balaguer M, et al. Adrenomedullin is a useful biomarker for the prognosis of critically ill septic children. Biomark Med. Oct 2014;8(9):1065-1072.

 

PCT and MR-proADM

 1.    Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. Jun 1992;101(6):1644-1655.
2.    Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med. Apr 2003;31(4):1250-1256.
3.    Vincent JL, Sakr Y, Sprung CL, et al. Sepsis in European intensive care units: results of the SOAP study. Crit Care Med. Feb 2006;34(2):344-353.
4.    Liu V, Escobar GJ, Greene JD, et al. Hospital deaths in patients with sepsis from 2 independent cohorts. JAMA. Jul 2 2014;312(1):90-92.
5.    Kopterides P, Siempos, II, Tsangaris I, Tsantes A, Armaganidis A. Procalcitonin-guided algorithms of antibiotic therapy in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care Med. Nov 2010;38(11):2229-2241.
6.    Muller B, Becker KL, Schachinger H, et al. Calcitonin precursors are reliable markers of sepsis in a medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. Apr 2000;28(4):977-983.
7.    Schuetz P, Albrich W, Christ-Crain M, Chastre J, Mueller B. Procalcitonin for guidance of antibiotic therapy. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. May 2010;8(5):575-587.
8.    Schuetz P, Mueller B. The role of immune and metabolic biomarkers for improved management of sepsis patients. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. Sep 2014;10(9):1255-1262.
9.    Guignant C, Voirin N, Venet F, et al. Assessment of pro-vasopressin and pro-adrenomedullin as predictors of 28-day mortality in septic shock patients. Intensive Care Med. Nov 2009;35(11):1859-1867.
10.    Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Harbarth S, Bergmann A, Muller B. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin as a prognostic marker in sepsis: an observational study. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):R816-824.
11.    Marino R, Struck J, Maisel AS, Magrini L, Bergmann A, Somma S. Plasma adrenomedullin is associated with short-term mortality and vasopressor requirement in patients admitted with sepsis. Crit Care. 2014;18(2):R34.
12.    Travaglino F, De Berardinis B, Magrini L, et al. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED). A comparison with APACHE II score. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:184.
13.    Koch T, Geiger S, Ragaller MJ. Monitoring of organ dysfunction in sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: novel strategies. J Am Soc Nephrol. Feb 2001;12 Suppl 17:S53-59.
14.    Schuetz P, Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Bergmann A, Muller B. Circulating precursor levels of endothelin-1 and adrenomedullin, two endothelium-derived, counteracting substances, in sepsis. Endothelium. Nov-Dec 2007;14(6):345-351.
15.    Wang RL, Kang FX. Prediction about severity and outcome of sepsis by pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin. Chin J Traumatol. Jun 1 2010;13(3):152-157.
16.    Bueno Requena MP. 2014.
17.    Valenzuela Sánchez F. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC USEFULNESS OF PRO-ADRENOMEDULLIN LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE SEPSIS. University Hospital SAS of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera (Cadiz), Spain;2014 IN PRESS
18.    Hirata Y, Mitaka C, Sato K, et al. Increased circulating adrenomedullin, a novel vasodilatory peptide, in sepsis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Apr 1996;81(4):1449-1453.
19.    Nishikimi T, Kitamura K, Saito Y, et al. Clinical studies on the sites of production and clearance of circulating adrenomedullin in human subjects. Hypertension. Nov 1994;24(5):600-604.
20.    Bunton DC, Petrie MC, Hillier C, Johnston F, McMurray JJ. The clinical relevance of adrenomedullin: a promising profile? Pharmacol Ther. Sep 2004;103(3):179-201.
21.    So S, Hattori Y, Kasai K, Shimoda S, Gross SS. Up-regulation of rat adrenomedullin gene expression by endotoxin: relation to nitric oxide synthesis. Life Sci. 1996;58(19):PL309-315.
22.    Booth FV, Short M, Shorr AF, et al. Application of a population-based severity scoring system to individual patients results in frequent misclassification. Crit Care. Oct 5 2005;9(5):R522-529.
23.    Polderman KH, Girbes AR, Thijs LG, Strack van Schijndel RJ. Accuracy and reliability of APACHE II scoring in two intensive care units Problems and pitfalls in the use of APACHE II and suggestions for improvement. Anaesthesia. Jan 2001;56(1):47-50.
24.    Knaus WA, Zimmerman JE, Wagner DP, Draper EA, Lawrence DE. APACHE-acute physiology and chronic health evaluation: a physiologically based classification system. Crit Care Med. Aug 1981;9(8):591-597.
25.    Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Norrby-Teglund A, Mylona V, et al. Risk assessment in sepsis: a new prognostication rule by APACHE II score and serum soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor. Crit Care. 2012;16(4):R149.
26.    Abraham E, Laterre PF, Garg R, et al. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for adults with severe sepsis and a low risk of death. N Engl J Med. Sep 29 2005;353(13):1332-1341.
27.    Parrillo JE. Severe sepsis and therapy with activated protein C. N Engl J Med. Sep 29 2005;353(13):1398-1400.
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29.    Michels M, Djamiatun K, Faradz SM, Koenders MM, de Mast Q, van der Ven AJ. High plasma mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin levels in children with severe dengue virus infections. J Clin Virol. Jan 2011;50(1):8-12.
30.    Angeletti S, Battistoni F, Fioravanti M, Bernardini S, Dicuonzo G. Procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin test combination in sepsis diagnosis. Clin Chem Lab Med. May 2013;51(5):1059-1067.
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Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

 1.    Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Arbogast PG, Martin SW, Edwards KM, Griffin MR. Decline in pneumonia admissions after routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA: a time-series analysis. Lancet. Apr 7 2007;369(9568):1179-1186.
2.    Jackson ML, Neuzil KM, Thompson WW, et al. The burden of community-acquired pneumonia in seniors: results of a population-based study. Clin Infect Dis. Dec 1 2004;39(11):1642-1650.
3.    Groenewegen KH, Schols AM, Wouters EF. Mortality and mortality-related factors after hospitalization for acute exacerbation of COPD. Chest. Aug 2003;124(2):459-467.
4.    Aliyu ZY, Aliyu MH, McCormick K. Determinants for hospitalization in " low-risk" community acquired pneumonia. BMC Infect Dis. Jun 17 2003;3:11.
5.    Griffiths PD, Edwards MH, Forbes A, Harris RL, Ritchie G. Effectiveness of intermediate care in nursing-led in-patient units. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(2):CD002214.
6.    Chalmers JD, Al-Khairalla M, Short PM, Fardon TC, Winter JH. Proposed changes to management of lower respiratory tract infections in response to the Clostridium difficile epidemic. J Antimicrob Chemother. Apr 2010;65(4):608-618.
7.    Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. Jan 23 1997;336(4):243-250.
8.    Lim WS, van der Eerden MM, Laing R, et al. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax. May 2003;58(5):377-382.
9.    Albrich WC, Dusemund F, Ruegger K, et al. Enhancement of CURB65 score with proadrenomedullin (CURB65-A) for outcome prediction in lower respiratory tract infections: derivation of a clinical algorithm. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:112.
10.    Albrich WC, Ruegger K, Dusemund F, et al. Optimised patient transfer using an innovative multidisciplinary assessment in Kanton Aargau (OPTIMA I): an observational survey in lower respiratory tract infections. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011;141:w13237.
11.    Kruger S, Ewig S, Giersdorf S, Hartmann O, Suttorp N, Welte T. Cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers to predict short- and long-term survival in community-acquired pneumonia: Results from the German Competence Network, CAPNETZ. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Dec 1 2010;182(11):1426-1434.
12.    Samson WK. Proadrenomedullin-derived peptides. Front Neuroendocrinol. Apr 1998;19(2):100-127.
13.    Bello S, Lasierra AB, Minchole E, et al. Prognostic power of proadrenomedullin in community-acquired pneumonia is independent of aetiology. Eur Respir J. May 2012;39(5):1144-1155.
14.    Shah BA, Ahmed W, Dhobi GN, Shah NN, Khursheed SQ, Haq I. Validity of pneumonia severity index and CURB-65 severity scoring systems in community acquired pneumonia in an Indian setting. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. Jan-Mar 2010;52(1):9-17.
15.    Struck J, Tao C, Morgenthaler NG, Bergmann A. Identification of an Adrenomedullin precursor fragment in plasma of sepsis patients. Peptides. Aug 2004;25(8):1369-1372.
16.    Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Stolz D, et al. Pro-adrenomedullin to predict severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia [ISRCTN04176397]. Crit Care. 2006;10(3):R96.
17.    Maisel A, Mueller C, Nowak RM, et al. Midregion prohormone adrenomedullin and prognosis in patients presenting with acute dyspnea: results from the BACH (Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. Aug 30 2011;58(10):1057-1067.
18.    Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, Struck J, Harbarth S, Bergmann A, Muller B. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin as a prognostic marker in sepsis: an observational study. Crit Care. 2005;9(6):R816-824.
19.    Khan SQ, O'Brien RJ, Struck J, et al. Prognostic value of midregional pro-adrenomedullin in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the LAMP (Leicester Acute Myocardial Infarction Peptide) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. Apr 10 2007;49(14):1525-1532.
20.    Aliberti S, Ramirez J, Cosentini R, et al. Low CURB-65 is of limited value in deciding discharge of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Respir Med. Nov 2011;105(11):1732-1738.
21.    Broulette J, Yu H, Pyenson B, Iwasaki K, Sato R. The incidence rate and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia in a working-age population. Am Health Drug Benefits. Sep 2013;6(8):494-503.
22.    Albrich WC, Ruegger K, Dusemund F, et al. Biomarker-enhanced triage in respiratory infections: a proof-of-concept feasibility trial. Eur Respir J. Oct 2013;42(4):1064-1075.
23.    Schuetz P, Wolbers M, Christ-Crain M, et al. Prohormones for prediction of adverse medical outcome in community-acquired pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections. Crit Care. 2010;14(3):R106.
24.    Raut M, Schein J, Mody S, Grant R, Benson C, Olson W. Estimating the economic impact of a half-day reduction in length of hospital stay among patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the US. Curr Med Res Opin. Sep 2009;25(9):2151-2157.

 

Non-specific complaints

1.    Eliastam M. Elderly patients in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. Nov 1989;18(11):1222-1229.
2.    Ngian VJ, Ong BS, O'Rourke F, Nguyen HV, Chan DK. Review of a rapid geriatric medical assessment model based in emergency department. Age Ageing. Nov 2008;37(6):696-699.
3.    Rutschmann OT, Chevalley T, Zumwald C, Luthy C, Vermeulen B, Sarasin FP. Pitfalls in the emergency department triage of frail elderly patients without specific complaints. Swiss Med Wkly. Mar 5 2005;135(9-10):145-150.
4.    Peters ML. The older adult in the emergency department: aging and atypical illness presentation. J Emerg Nurs. Jan 2010;36(1):29-34.
5.    Schumacher JG. Emergency medicine and older adults: continuing challenges and opportunities. Am J Emerg Med. Jul 2005;23(4):556-560.
6.    Chou MY, Chou SL, Tzeng YM, et al. Emergency department (ED) utilization and outcome of oldest old men presenting with geriatric syndromes in a veterans care home in Taiwan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Dec 2009;49 Suppl 2:S32-36.
7.    Lim KH, Yap KB. The presentation of elderly people at an emergency department in Singapore. Singapore Med J. Dec 1999;40(12):742-744.
8.    Conroy S. Emergency room geriatric assessment--urgent, important or both? Age Ageing. Nov 2008;37(6):612-613.
9.    Salvi F, Morichi V, Grilli A, Giorgi R, De Tommaso G, Dessi-Fulgheri P. The elderly in the emergency department: a critical review of problems and solutions. Intern Emerg Med. Dec 2007;2(4):292-301.
10.    Rogers D. The increasing geriatric population and overcrowding in the emergency department: one hospital's approach. J Emerg Nurs. Sep 2009;35(5):447-450.
11.    Nemec M, Koller MT, Nickel CH, et al. Patients presenting to the emergency department with non-specific complaints: the Basel Non-specific Complaints (BANC) study. Acad Emerg Med. Mar 2010;17(3):284-292.
12.    Chew WM, Birnbaumer DM. Evaluation of the elderly patient with weakness: an evidence based approach. Emerg Med Clin North Am. Feb 1999;17(1):265-278, x.
13.    Gordon M. Differential diagnosis of weakness--a common geriatric symptom. Geriatrics. Apr 1986;41(4):75-80.
14.    Grossmann FF, Zumbrunn T, Frauchiger A, Delport K, Bingisser R, Nickel CH. At risk of undertriage? Testing the performance and accuracy of the emergency severity index in older emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. Sep 2012;60(3):317-325 e313.
15.    Mitra B, Cameron PA, Archer P, et al. The association between time to disposition plan in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality of general medical patients. Intern Med J. Apr 2012;42(4):444-450.
16.    Nickel CH, Nemec M, Bingisser R. Weakness as presenting symptom in the emergency department. Swiss Med Wkly. May 2 2009;139(17-18):271-272.
17.    Fernandez HM, Callahan KE, Likourezos A, Leipzig RM. House staff member awareness of older inpatients' risks for hazards of hospitalization. Arch Intern Med. Feb 25 2008;168(4):390-396.
18.    Ouslander JG, Lamb G, Perloe M, et al. Potentially avoidable hospitalizations of nursing home residents: frequency, causes, and costs: [see editorial comments by Drs. Jean F. Wyman and William R. Hazzard, pp 760-761]. J Am Geriatr Soc. Apr 2010;58(4):627-635.
19.    Nickel CH, Messmer AS, Geigy N, et al. Stress markers predict mortality in patients with nonspecific complaints presenting to the emergency department and may be a useful risk stratification tool to support disposition planning. Acad Emerg Med. Jul 2013;20(7):670-679.
20.    van Bokhoven MA, Koch H, van der Weijden T, Dinant GJ. Special methodological challenges when studying the diagnosis of unexplained complaints in primary care. J Clin Epidemiol. Apr 2008;61(4):318-322.
21.    Gupta M, Tabas JA, Kohn MA. Presenting complaint among patients with myocardial infarction who present to an urban, public hospital emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. Aug 2002;40(2):180-186.
22.    Lee TH, Goldman L. Evaluation of the patient with acute chest pain. N Engl J Med. Apr 20 2000;342(16):1187-1195.
23.    Wang CS, FitzGerald JM, Schulzer M, Mak E, Ayas NT. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. Oct 19 2005;294(15):1944-1956.
24.    Messmer AS, Kubera KM, Buser PJ, et al. Pulmonary cavitation in a patient presenting with nonspecific complaints. Am J Emerg Med. Oct 2012;30(8):1662 e1661-1663.
25.    Albrich WC, Ruegger K, Dusemund F, et al. Optimised patient transfer using an innovative multidisciplinary assessment in Kanton Aargau (OPTIMA I): an observational survey in lower respiratory tract infections. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011;141:w13237.
26.    Stolz D, Christ-Crain M, Morgenthaler NG, et al. Plasma pro-adrenomedullin but not plasma pro-endothelin predicts survival in exacerbations of COPD. Chest. Aug 2008;134(2):263-272.
27.    Stolz D, Kostikas K, Blasi F, et al. Adrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD: the "BODE-A" index. Eur Respir J. Feb 2014;43(2):397-408.
28.    Baumann MR, Strout TD. Evaluation of the Emergency Severity Index (version 3) triage algorithm in pediatric patients. Acad Emerg Med. Mar 2005;12(3):219-224.
29.    Schuetz P, Hausfater P, Amin D, et al. Optimizing triage and hospitalization in adult general medical emergency patients: the triage project. BMC Emerg Med. 2013;13:12.
30.    Broulette J, Yu H, Pyenson B, Iwasaki K, Sato R. The incidence rate and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia in a working-age population. Am Health Drug Benefits. Sep 2013;6(8):494-503.
31.    Chu I, Vaca F, Stratton S, Chakravarthy B, Hoonpongsimanont W, Lotfipour S. Geriatric trauma care: challenges facing emergency medical services. Cal J Emerg Med. May 2007;8(2):51-55.
32.    Phillips S, Rond PC, 3rd, Kelly SM, Swartz PD. The failure of triage criteria to identify geriatric patients with trauma: results from the Florida Trauma Triage Study. J Trauma. Feb 1996;40(2):278-283.

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